Keywords : histopathology

Non – Melanoma Skin Cancers: A Clinical and Histopathological Study

Osama N. Al -Hemiari; Aseel H. Aboud

Kerbala Journal of Medicine, 2018, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 3943-3947

background: Non – melanoma skin cancer like basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common cutaneous cancer and are associated with multifactorial causes such as environmental and host factors, hence they are not uncommon skin diseases in Iraqi patients.
Aims of the study: This study was conducted to evaluate the topography of lesions and their correlations with gender, age, clinical and histological type and correlation between them.
Patients and methods: A total of 159 patients with in non –melanoma skin cancers were studied in Al-Hussain medical city in a retrospective study during the period from January 2012 to June 2016.
After diagnosing each patient and a careful histopathological examination, statistical analyses were done.
Results: The analysis included 159 patients with non – melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs)
Eighty eight patients with basal cell carcinoma were seen (55.34٪). The majority of patients were in the form of nodular and noduloulcerative &the second most type was basosquamous type.
Clinically, it was the same of nodular type as the majority of cases were diagnosed with this type
Fifty patients with SCCs (31.44 ٪) were seen. Clinically, the patients with SCC presented as a hard indurated plaques or nodules, some were ulcerated.
Nearly all the types may be in the form of well differentiated or moderately well differentiated. Discussion:
NMSCs comprise a significant proportion of all skin cancer patients in the world. BCC is the commonest NMSC worldwide and various studies have reported SCC as the second most prevalent.
Basal cell carcinoma commonly seen on the faces of the middle age or elderly with male to female ratio is about 3: 2 and the incidence increases markedly after age of 40 years.
Squamous cell carcinoma was the next common non – melanoma skin cancers of the face forming about 31.44 ٪ of cases as a potentially lethal form of skin cancer, It can arise from actinic keratosis with a slight male predominance in the male to female ratio 1.17: 1.
The prevalence and distribution of lesions of SCC correlates well with the exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

Bronchogenic Carcinoma in Patients Younger Than 40 Years

Hashim M. Al-Kadhimi; Qasim H. Al-Azzawi; Alaa K. Salih

Kerbala Journal of Medicine, 2017, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 2785-2791

background: lung cancer is the most frequent cancer related cause of death for both gender, currently 10 millions new lung cancer are diagnosed each year worldwide.
Objective: To determine the different clinical characteristics and other features of lung cancer in the different age groups.
Methodology: This was descriptive retrospective study carried on 32 patients with histological proven lung cancer under the age of 40 years from three medical centers. All patients underwent full clinical assessment including history (particularly smoking) and full physical examination Bronchoscope was done to all patients except those unfit pleural effusion cytology and pleural biopsy done to all patients with pleural effusion. FNA Cytology done under ultrasound guide and was of great help in those patient in whom the histological diagnosis was difficult to be obtained by other methods.
Results: The age of studied group ranged between (10_40 years) with a mean of 25. From the thirty two patients, there were 18 males patients (56%) and 14 females patients (44%), with 1.3:1 male: female ratio. History of smoking in the young age group was present in19 patients (60%), 13 were males (68.5%) and 6 patients (31%) were females, and 13 patients (40%) never smoked .Undifferentiated carcinoma is much more common in males than females (20% and 8% respectively). The most common histological types of lung cancer in both sex of young group was adenocarcinoma (44% of cases) occurring 50% of females and 40% of male.
Conclusion: Cigarette smoking is an important cause of the current epidemic of lung cancer among our young patients, so it is preventable rather than curable medical problem. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type of lung cancer in Iraqi young patients.

Pathological Analysis of Thyroglossal Duct Cyst in Children

Aseel Hameed A. Al-Khalifah

Kerbala Journal of Medicine, 2017, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 2656-2662

Background: Thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDCs) are the most common form of congenital neck cyst, accounting for up to 70% of such lesions. There has been no consensus on which factors predict outcome of thyroglossal duct cyst excision.
Objective: To evaluate the relevance of symptomatology, age at presentation and the histopathology of TGDCs.
Methods: Retrospective review of patients with TGDC at Al-Hissain medical city. Data collected included patient’s age, gender, clinical presentation, presence or absence of preoperative infection, size and location of the lesion,
Results: Thirty –one patients were identified (71% female and 29% male). Age of presentation was bimodal and ranged from few months to 17 years. The most common presenting symptom was the presence of an asymptomatic midline neck mass (71%). A history of preoperative TGDC infection was present in 3% of patients ≤2 years of age and in 10% of patients ≥5 years of age.
Conclusions: The finding of a midline neck mass is the most common presentation of TGDCs in toddlers, whereas infection is the most common presenting symptoms in school-aged children. Complete and precise clinical information is a prerequisite in order for pathologists to make accurate diagnoses of congenital cervical cysts.